J. Lawrence Cook
The International Musician

Professional Piano Pointers

INTRODUCTION

Between May 1941 and April 1943, J. Lawrence Cook wrote at least 16 articles on jazz piano technique for The International Musician (the official organ of the American Federation of Musicians). The articles appeared in the “Pedagogics” section, under the title of “Professional Piano Pointers.”

At this time he was working full-time during the day as a dispatcher at the U.S. Post Office substation, near Columbus Circle, and in the evening, and at weekends, he worked part-time arranging piano rolls for the Imperial Industrial Company in the Bronx at 781 East 136th Street, New York City.

Special thanks to Prof. Brian Dolan, Prof. Alan Wallace, Millie Gaddini and Dr. Robert Pinsker.

2007 Monrovia Sound Studio

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated May 1941, Vol. 39, No. 11, page 28, column 2 and page 29, column 1.


The International Musician

Professional Piano Pointers

By J. Lawrence Cook

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

Styles of popular piano playing are, in my opinion, to be regarded from two separate points of view, one based chiefly on the type of material used to produce certain varieties or shades of rhythmic effect and the other on finer development in execution wherein the mechanical aspect is taken so much for granted that one is but faintly aware of its existence as such.

In the former the listener is “carried”, and in the latter he is “sent”, so to speak. The former dictates a pattern of rhythmic impulse which pulls the listener along with it; while the latter, bordering more on the realm of the sublime, tunes in on the sense of higher artistic appreciation and forces itself to be felt, its rhythmic element being subconsciously absorbed. In one instance the listener need have but a primal sense of rhythmic reaction in order to be “carried” while in the other he must have not only that, but must, in addition, be “allergic” to the touch of genius.

The category of styles which motivates the first point of view may be compared with hats, shoes or other wearing apparel. This season the pianist whose style has most substantially captured the public fancy may be one who dotes upon carrying a baritone melody against some individualistic form of embellishment; next season the “boogie woogie” artists may be holding forth; and the next some other form may be in vogue. You may then adopt, accept or reject as you see fit, somewhat as you would seasonal styles in clothes. This is not true of the other type of piano playing, for, once it is set, it goes on and on without any appreciable change. Once a pianist has reached a satisfactory degree of proficiency in it, he can no more successfully change it than he can change his own personality; and the most faithful of his audiences are to be found mainly among musicians themselves.

So much for abstraction. Let us now get down to cases. However, since we did start with abstractions, suppose we group our concrete classifications accordingly, calling the first Number One and the second Number Two.

NUMBER ONE

When the average prospective student of modern popular piano playing walks into a studio to inquire about lessons, he usually opens his part of the interview somewhat as follows, provided that he has professional aims:

“I studied piano for about a year and a half. Having had no desire to become a classical pianist, I discontinued my regular lessons and turned to ‘swing’. After having gone to every studio of popular piano playing I could find, I was unconvinced of the capability of any to teach me just what I wanted to learn; so I bought some books and proceeded with self-study. I’ve picked up some ideas here and there and, adding these to what I learned from the books and to what I figured out myself from studying player rolls and phonograph records, I guess I haven’t done so badly. I play in a small band and am considered pretty good as a band pianist. However, I’ve often been told that I have no particular style and that I’m weak when it comes to taking solos. What can YOU do for me?”

The solution of at least some of the problems of such a prospective student lies in his first picking out several outstanding pianists whose styles he likes and studying the things they do, not limiting his observations to the mere structural texture of their tricks, but giving considerable attention to the manner of execution. There should be among these one special favorite whose style he likes best of all, and he should REALLY concentrate on him. This favorite should, in particular, have a clear-cut style which he is capable of handling with absolute mastery.

The object in making a study of several is not only to learn a wide variety of new tricks, but eventually to consolidate their methods in ways best suited to your own mechanical, technical and temperamental qualifications. You will have to be specific, too. That is, you must compile an actual repertory of what each has at some time or other done with a movement from one specific chord to another, in a given tempo and with a certain type of melody. Such exact information should be perpetuated by being recorded on manuscript or thoroughly committed to memory. You will finally “boil things down” to a point that suits you exactly in every way. When you begin to make practical use of devices so learned, you will find that your performance will begin to be different, whether or not you have made alterations in the actual structure. That is, even though you may make use of identical notes, there is bound to be an inflection provoked by your individual treatment, noticeable perhaps in no other way than by difference in shade of expression given to but a single note in an entire figure or phrase.

Continue along this line, making it a point to be always improving the quality of your bass tenths, your treble octaves, thirds and single-notes, and your runs. You will find that the ultimate rhythmic effect is usually a determining factor in the popularity of a given style. For example, the so-called “boogie-woogie” style is totally uninteresting harmonically; but it generates a rhythmic effect that is distinctive and different and which will cause even a critical ear to endure the monotony of its harmonic platitudes. Thus, “boogie-woogie” has swept the country. It is a fad, and will go as other fads come and go. It was with us more than 20 years ago, and, after having run its course this time, is bound to recur again in the future.

I recommend direct imitation at the start. As a matter of fact, some students may at first be so lacking in creative ability and even in adaptation that no other course will be feasible. Does not the future painter or sculptor seek to reproduce works of the old masters before he expects to make any headway toward achieving a style of his own.

The real signature of your style, once you have developed it, will be your excellency in performing one or two tricks which you have perfected for certain types of chords or resolutions. Some pianists are known by their individual treatment of certain types of runs and others for their solid rhythm; some for their smooth execution of bass tenths, and others for their interesting contrapuntal bass movements; some for excellency in fast playing, and others for the same in slow playing.

Can you name the well known pianist who should be readily identified with this type of run?

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PROFESSIONAL PIANO POINTERS

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NUMBER TWO

Those in this group are to popular piano playing what a finished classical artist is to classical playing. I refer, of course, to the classical artist who has achieved distinction as a soloist. Albeit, the popular artists whom I place in this group all have a good background in classical study. Seldom do they win popularity polls, though, for theirs is a style without appeal to the masses. One outstanding feature of their assets is their fineness of touch, which is of minor importance to those listeners who respond more readily to the appeal of rhythm than to that of tonality.

True enough, the stylists to whom I now refer have much in common with the adherents of the other style (Number One), but aside from fineness of touch, they are required to exhibit superior technique as well as an almost phenomenal aptness at improvising.

The final impressions produced in this classification of style may generally be referred to as either CONTRAPUNTAL or PEDAL-WISE. The contrapuntal is identified by the ultimate effect of single-note movements in the right hand part and legato-like movements of bass tenths in the left. The general reaction is that you feel like swaying or just drifting along. The flow of music seems to travel, as it were, from east to west.

The pedal-wise form is noted by a sort of up-and-down impression. That is, the listener is more strongly conscious of movements of the performer’s hands from an upward position down to the piano keys. Fundamental pulsations in bass are prominent and treble figures are rather strongly accentuated whether they be of solid or moving character. It is easy to understand how this form lends itself to dancing purposes, while the contrapuntal is the more satisfactory for relaxed listening.

I should like my readers to listen to a good solo recording by Teddy Wilson and one by “Fats” Waller. Close your eyes as you listen to each, and make a note of your general reactions in respect to contrapuntal and pedal-wise “listening impression.” I should be pleased to have you write in your classifications.

The three examples which follow






show what three stylists have done with the second four measures of “Honeysuckle Rose” in various recordings. It is well to note that each abandons the melody and proceeds to insert original figures to fill out these measures.

The first is a case of pure improvistation, the second a case of stock figuration against a specific harmonic pattern; and it is logical to assume that in the third the artist worked his figure out well in advance of the recording.

Can you identify the artists by playing over the measures shown? If not, I shall be pleased to honor your request not only for the names of the artists, but for the makes and numbers of the records on which the measures have been recorded.

Note: The hand-writen manuscript examples shown in the article above are by J. Lawrence Cook.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated June 1941, Vol. 39, No. 12, page 25, column 2 and page 26, column 1.


The International Musician

PROFESSIONAL PIANO POINTERS

By J. LAWRENCE COOK

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

Letters received as a result of this column have been interesting, gratifying and reassuring; interesting because they afforded access to intimate examination of individual problems confronting serious-minded students of the subject at hand; gratifying because of the seemingly sincere words of commendation for the efforts of this writer; and reassuring for having substantiated a number of his pet contentions.

We would say to those who have stated in their letters that “they study recordings extensively”, to keep it up, for much is to derived from it; but unless you are well advanced in more than mere technical requirements, such study will not be the means of completely solving your problems.

Many who are considerably advanced in classical music must have truly excellent foundation, but this very asset could hamper progress toward mastery of the more advanced forms of popular piano playing. As one example of what this statement is intended to mean, let us make the following observation: suppose a rather capable classical pianist was confronted with a rather difficult Wilson or Tatum arrangement which contained a number of the intricate passages related to the styles of these particular artists. True enough, he could execute passages without a great deal of effort, at least after a little practice. But the point is — would the desired “ultimate effect” be completely accomplished? We should say, “No!” And why? Mainly because such passages (as those apt to occur) are to be executed with a technique with which the classical artist may be entirely unfamiliar, and without which the proper accentuation and rhythmic effect simply cannot be achieved. What then, is the answer?

Some pianists have eventually worked out their own answers by trying out so many remedies that when they finally reached solutions they were unaware of exactly how it was done.

It seems that one practical solution would be the availability of an adequate treatise containing a carefully selected series of exercises intended specifically for the development and perfection of this particular brand of technique. Such exercises should be properly fingered and should be accompanied with ample explanatory text to guide the student in securing proper fluency plus correct attack and accentuation; nor should any words be spared to stress the importance of “harmonic texture and characteristics” of the passages and means toward their most effective application.

There is no intention on our part to discredit the fine performances of hundreds of good pianists — performances which in many cases show merit both in popular and classical playing. So reference in these columns to just a few artists does not indicates partiality. It means only that they have been singled out as representing the highest degree of perfection in the treatment of popular piano playing as a “branch in its own right”.

The work of Teddy Wilson, for example, represents the very ultimate in spontaneous conception and performance (improvising) as well as in almost uncanny aptitude for producing beautiful melodic line.

Art Tatum commands attention for his ability to produce amazingly interesting effects in harmony, to carry a beautiful melodic line, to exhibit a masterful touch with incredible technique, all at the same time.

Thomas “Fats” Waller may be thought of as the personification of “solid” playing. There is nothing exciting in his structural process, nothing surprising in his technical accomplishment, nothing particularly startling about the tricks he uses. Yet he has a style that is easy to listen to, easy to follow, and, above all, has an irresistible appeal.

The popular pianist, unlike his classical counterpart, must be able to interpret and construct simultaneously. The classical pianist need only secure a copy which has already been arranged, and work on it until he has succeeded in mastering it. This brings us, then, to another problem of the serious-minded student of popular piano playing. He is expected to know what to do, when a given melody moves in a certain way, when a certain progression occurs, when he wishes to insert an original harmonic idea, when the conventional bass seems dull and insufficient.

Finally, we come to what may well be considered the most important part of this article, an attempt to save many from a good deal of futile effort.

Haven’t you heard someone make some such remark as follows: “My goodness, if I could just play one piece half as good as that, I’d be tickled to death!” Yes, the average person with a yen to play popular music in a reasonably satisfactory manner would like to be able just to fool around with the keys in a manner which might be recognized as at least average, or perhaps a little above it. He likes it for its diverse potentialities and would readily reject serious study, for serious study means hard work and such application to the task as would at times become irksome and discouraging. The average person would want to be shown a few tricks, or, better still, have the teacher write out the arrangements — not too difficult, either — in their entirety, without even bothering to explain how or why this or that little device has been used and how it may be applied in other places

But there are the comparative few who are definitely resolved to reach a point of distinction, and here are some of the questions that these few may at times ask themselves: “Since I have excellent technique, shouldn’t I aspire to play like Tatum?” “Since I have a wide left hand stretch and a flair for improvising a single-note melodic line, shouldn’t I be able to play like Wilson?” “I’ve studied harmony extensively in a conservatory. So shouldn’t I be able to insert these modern effects that I’ve been hearing?” The answer to these and many similar questions is a big “maybe”.

It is true that the first things to be appraised are your technical qualifications and your musical background in general, but there are other things of equal or greater importance.

We were giving lessons at one time to an advanced pupil who was an avowed Teddy Wilson adherent. He had us transcribe several Wilson choruses from records. These choruses constituted the most important part of his lessons, but, no matter how much he practiced them, they were totally unrecognizable as creations of Wilson. To put it figuratively, this pupil’s “vibrations” simply were not in tune with those of Wilson. The probable solution, then, would be for him to seek to emulate an artist for whom he had intense admiration and one with whom “his natural vibrations were more nearly in tune”.

If you must choose to emulate the style of any particular artist, first make proper tests to ascertain whether or not there is enough similarity between “the real thing” and the results of your ultimate efforts at direct imitation of it. No matter how individualistic your own style may be, its counterpart is more than apt to be recognized in the style of some recognized artist. Find him! Study others as much as you please, but concentrate on him.

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Professional Piano Pointers

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Can you name the recording from which the following was extracted, giving the artist’s name and title of the piece? How would you finger and phrase it?

The following is a harmonic layout suitable for an interesting introduction in the key of G. It has been used by a well known artist. Those who care to add an original right hand part may send it in for comment. The one, which in our opinion, appears to be the best, will be printed here in a future column with full credit given to the one who sent it in.



Note: The hand-writen manuscript examples shown in the article above are by J. Lawrence Cook.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated July 1941, Vol. 40, No. 1, page 23, column 1 and page 24, column 2.


The International Musician

PROFESSIONAL PIANO POINTERS

By J. LAWRENCE COOK

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

During the past ten years the art of improvising has gradually taken a very strong position in popular piano playing.

Improvising in popular music is by no means new, for instrument players (other than pianists) indulged in it profusely even before the 1920’s; and, although their efforts were probably worthy of all the praise of that period, we doubt if they would stand up well beside present-day improvisers. Incidentally, what passed for piano (popular) improvising in those days could hardly be regarded as more than stereotyped variation upon the original theme.

It seems then that piano improvisers whose efforts have led to the present-day laudable state of development may have taken a cue from the work of “single-note” instrumentalists of former years.

We have mentioned these things in the hope of making some progress towards clearing up a very pertinent question relating to professional piano playing of the present time.

It seems that all too many advanced students with marvelous background and technical advantage as well as talent have become confused over the matter of improvising on the piano. After checking their own assets and comparing them with those of the most successful exponents of the art of improvising, they have become thoroughly convinced that their own qualifications are quite up to par or even above it. Then they develop an inferiority complex over their failure eventually to produce results which are favorably comparable to the work of those they seek to emulate. This is a mistake committed by many.

There is not just one prerequisite for excellent improvising on the piano; there are three, and we list them here in order of importance:

       (1)  An innate sense of improvising in the accepted modern popular idiom;

       (2)  A striking degree of talent;

       (3)  Good musical background and mastery of technical difficulties.

The last named would, on the surface, seem to be the most important, and we, ourselves, may have slipped

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Professional Piano Pointers

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and said so at sometime or other, but it isn’t so. Belief that it is so has probably misled or hampered more otherwise fine pianists than anything else.

If you are so fortunate as to have the first prerequisite (innate sense, etc.), you must automatically have the second (talent); then whatever technical difficulties there are will be overshadowed by the dynamic advantages of the first and second. But if you have only number three and seek to develop the other two, you are “putting the cart before the horse” that doesn’t even exist. Avoid such a futile venture.

By all means never give up studying, but, instead of laboring under the illusion that you are a “top-notch improviser” in the making, just realize that there are other equally important advantages you are bringing under your command through protracted study, namely:

       (1)  Analytical knowledge of methods employed by successful improvisers;

       (2)  Keyboard abandon;

       (3)  The advantage of being able to give a reasonably satisfactory performance
              extemporaneously or in a pinch.

Having these things in mind, you will then proceed to arrange (either in your mind or on paper) your best works and perform them after mastery of all technical problems involved. With your qualification (No. 3 under the listing prerequisites) your final efforts should compare very favorably with, or even surpass that of, the best improvisers. Don’t forget that improvisers play a sort of game of hit or miss. They have their “on” and “off” sessions. They are apt to rely so strongly upon prerequisite No. 1 (innate sense, etc.) that they may never be too sure in advance of how any given performance is going to be.

In the light of the foregoing statements of individual opinion, we intend, for the time being at least, to devote our efforts to the subject of building satisfactory arrangements. For obvious reasons we shall use either original melodies or public domain tunes as nuclei, choosing at this time a few measures from a published (by a foreign firm) arrangement, by this writer, of “Dark Eyes”.



Note: The hand-writen manuscript examples shown in the article above are by J. Lawrence Cook.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated August 1941, Vol. 40, No. 2, page 23, columns 1—2.


The International Musician

PROFESSIONAL PIANO POINTERS

By J. LAWRENCE COOK

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

This column thanks those who expressed their interest by sending in introductions based upon the harmonic outline given in the June article.

Credit for what we have judged to be the best solution goes to Mr. Alverno Scherschligt of 210 Cedar Street, Yankton, South Dakota. It is reproduced here with a brief description.

Brother Edgar T. Paul of Local 40, Baltimore, Md., and Mr. John E. Kirtland of 1001 East 12th Avenue, Denver, Colo., deserve honorable mention for solutions each of which we judge to be second only to the actual winner.

In judging the examples sent in, the following points were carefully taken into account: naturalness of melodic line, presence or lack of affection, structural outline, presence or lack of intentional display or exhibitionism.

With the exception of an F-natural instead of F-sharp, Teddy Wilson uses this same harmonic outline (in the identical form) for his introduction to a recording of “Sweet Lorraine”. If you will send us a stamped, self-addressed envelope, we shall be glad to send you a copy of the introduction exactly as Teddy Wilson played it.

Meanwhile, we think it only fair to submit another harmonic outline, for, after having read this article, you will have a much better idea as to how your entry is to be judged. This introduction also has been used in a recording by a well known artist, and again we intend to reproduce the solution which is best in our opinion, giving full credit to the sender.

INTRODUCTION SUBMITTED BY MR. ALVERNO SCHERSCHLIGT

We believe that the interesting naturalness of the melodic line is self-evident. We offer the following brief analysis. Melody in entire first measure (A) ends on an active tone (C-sharp), resolving at (B) (to C-natural) into the first note of the succeeding antecedent figure; C, consequent to B; (D), figure and (E), its sequence one chromatic below; at (F), finish, note rhythmic structure of first beat (first arrow) and exact inversion of the same rhythm on the last beat (second arrow).

The “Introduction” to an arrangement intended as accompaniment for a singer serves two purposes; it establishes the key and prepares the singer for coming in at just the right moment.

The rehearsal pianist for routine dancers, either solo or ensemble, seldom (if ever) does more than set the speed of the dance by striking off a two-measure rhythmic phrase on the dominant note of the key in which he is to play. He may use a single note, an octave, or a three-note unison consisting of an octave for the right hand and a single note for the left. His sole purpose is to set the pace, and there is an understaning between him and the dancer that he has two measures in which to do it. The instant the last three beats of the second measure are completed, the dancer goes into action.

The introduction for an instrumental popular rendition may set the pace or the mood of the piece, or it may do both at once. Furthermore, it may also serve the single purpose of introducing a particular variety of rhythm or style.

Some bands have even adopted a sort of “signature” introduction which they use for all pieces they play in a particular tempo. For example, a band using a “signature” introduction such as that shown in Illustration No. 1 would indicate that it specialized in a sort of “bounce” rhythm; while one using a type such as that shown in Illustration No. 2 would wish to express a sort of lilting rhythm.

Certain “sweet” bands seek to express the mood of their brand of playing by using a signature introduction to express it. They usually employ a type which has a smooth and appealing melodic line against a smooth and comparatively simple harmonic background.

We have made the foregoing observations principally to impress upon the piano soloist the importance of seeing to it that his introductions have purpose. Now we shall proceed with a brief discussion of actual structure for piano.

If called upon to take an introduction on the spur of the moment, either you will take one from your “stock” or a variation thereof, or you will employ a stock harmonic outline and improvise within or around (or both) its harmonic texture. The question of purpose is not so important here as it is when you are doing an introduction preparatory to an outstanding solo rendition.

The task of building an introduction against a given harmonic outline is almost too easy. We have successfully taught the entire plan in one lesson to pupils of intermediate and sometimes elementary grade. However, that which is thus taught is only the beginning for those with professional aims.

Naturalness cannot be taught, but its absence in your structural plan does not by any means indicate that you do not have it; for it may be that you need only to learn how to apply it.

So in planning an introduction first ascertain whether or not it is necessary for it to have a particular purpose of expression; then, if it is necessary, seek to assert it with directness and clarity. Avoid affection. Exhibitionism is not altogether taboo, but it is not good for general purposes. Do nothing anti-climatic. That is, be careful not to do anything in the introduction that is going to overshadow everything you do in the actual piece. Exceptions to this are permissible, but rare. One notable exception to this is Art Tatum’s introduction for his recording of “Moonglow” on Decca 155A. His introductions usually conform in general to the rules we mention, but he really “gives this one the gun”. But alas, as you listen to this recording you find that in the body of one of the choruses he performs a technical feat which overshadows anything he has done in the introduction, thus cancelling any feeling of anti-climax which may have been made to prevail.

Would you perform your fanciest technical feats in the very first chorus of a three-chorus arrangement, then play straight melody for the final one? We think not. Then you should bear this same thought in mind, along with others, when planning your introductions.

If you have strict singleness of purpose, then direct all efforts to this end. This may be to assert the rhythmic type (such as conga, rhumba, etc.), to establish a certain tempo, to set a certain pace, or to prepare for the mood of the piece. If you have a dual purpose, then bear it well in mind.

A smooth introduction will not strictly demand single notes moving laterally, nor will a “jump” movement require the strict use of octaves. If by virtue of the fact that in desiring to insure a smooth introduction you start out with single notes, never fear to insert an occasional third or octave when such an insertion will unquestionably enhance the expression of your melodic thought. Runs are not too desirable but are permissible when consistently used and strategically placed. Mordents and grace notes are often used to good advantage. In the “jump” introduction trick figures often prove highly satisfactory, also an occasional well-placed “stabbing” accent. Awkward movements and figures, however, are to be shunned.

Note: The hand-writen manuscript examples shown in the article above are by J. Lawrence Cook.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated September 1941, Vol. 40, No. 3, page 26, column 1.


The International Musician

PROFESSIONAL PIANO POINTERS

By J. LAWRENCE COOK

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

IMPROVISATION

Not so long ago it was our good fortune to hear an interesting lecture by a very capable authority on Negro spirituals. During the course of the lecture he made a brief analysis of an old spiritual. We were actually startled as he revealed that this tune, although it was the product of musically untrained and perhaps illiterate minds, yet conformed to some of the most advanced musical principles. Not the least striking among this authority’s more specific references was his pointing out how the melody of this spiritual rose to a high and strongly accented note when the phrase “high upon de mountain” was reached, and how it fell plaintively to low register for “down in de valley”.

It was pointed out that such tunes were REAL because they were inspired by real situations and conditions. In a sense such tunes could no more help being composed than the sob, whistle, grunt or scream could be withheld in the face of sudden and intense physical pain.

Now when such spirituals took complete form and were eventually passed from group to group, finally to become universal, they could never be rendered with exactly the same meaning as that evoked by the circumstances which originally called them into being. Therefore the degree of similarity to the original would have to depend largely upon the performers’ ability to render them in such a way as to create moods reasonably similar to the original. Such might be accomplished by a voice or voices, and instrument or instruments. The primary requirements would be physical control of voices or technical control of instruments. In the case of the piano, from which full harmonies may be derived, a knowledge of the peculiarities, usages and relationship of these harmonies is needed in addition to the ability to control them.

A popular song is a tune and nothing more. Tens of thousands of them are written, but comparative few ever actually become a part of the people. Most of them seek merely to create a rhythmic mood. A good many are devoted either to love or a combination of love and rhythm. Others deal with subjects and slogans too numerous to mention. However, it is only fair to say that a number of them must have been really inspired.

While the song copy must be acknowledged as a complete entity, the musical part of it is to be regarded by the improvising pianist as embryonic, so to speak. If it is “just so”, he can work it into something passable; and if it really has “something on the ball”, he can develop it into something well worth the time it takes to stop and listen to it.

What makes the improviser “tick”?

Let’s take two short illustrations to show what may be derived through a simple manipulation of chord intervals against a substantial bass and harmonic pattern.

Illustration No. 1 shows the 15th and 16th (middle ending) measures of a 32-measure chorus in C, with a lead into the “release” (17th to 24th measures).

Successive tenths are used for the bass, while the right hand leaves the melody to execute the chord-interval figure shown in parentheses. Once the figure has been completed, the right hand relaxes until ready to take to pick-up on open octaves against the C-diminished chord which leads into C7 of the 17th measure.

In illustration No. 2 we take the harmonic outline of fours measures of “I’ll Get By” and work out an improvisation which is based principally on the manipulation of exact chord intervals.

This type of improvising is quite easy, but you have to use good imagination in achieving a design which is of good rhythmic and melodic character. That is, don’t just strike the intervals at random, but try to make them mean something. It is well to bear in mind also that you must avoid monotony. One way of accomplishing this is to assert (with proper feeling) an occasional figure of different structure from that used in your general plan. Note the trilled octave at (A) and the scalewise passage into the A7 harmony at (B). The pick-up notes at (C) are not absolutely necessary, but they do seem to add a bit of zest and set the pace. Meanwhile, possible substitutes for these two notes are shown in Illustration No. 2 A. Why not try them out?

If our readers care to try their hand at improvising the next four measures of this same tune, we’ll plan to print in a future article the one we judge to be the best. Full credit, as usual, will be given to the winner. Remember, just take the harmonic outline and avoid the use of the actual melody. In other words, make sure that your improvisation is original and make certain not to write out more than four measures, beginning with the B-flat chord shown in Illustration No. 2.

Note: The hand-writen manuscript examples shown in the article above are by J. Lawrence Cook.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated October 1941, Vol. 40, No. 4, page 29, column 2.


The International Musician

PROFESSIONAL PIANO POINTERS

By J. LAWRENCE COOK

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

ENDINGS

Harmony books tell us that a cadence which contains the resolution I-IV-V-I constitutes a perfect ending; yet we are familiar with the fact that, no matter how the cadence of a hymn is affected, it is always correct to follow it up with an “amen” sung to the accompaniment of the plagal cadence. The plagal cadence is, of course, an ending which dispenses with the V (dominant) altogether and is effectuated through the resolution IV (subdominant) — I (tonic).

Both the perfect and plagal endings are so obvious that popular pianists long ago sought escape from them through the use of other harmonies. The earliest departure that we can recall having set a vogue was that of the unresolved 7th and sometimes 9th. As a matter of fact, when this first came into use the piece was ordinarily ended completely in the conventional way and the ending (with unresolved 7th or 9th) “tacked on” much in the same manner as the relation of “amen” to a hymn. (See Examples 1-A and 1-B.)

Using this unresolved harmony to express finality, of all things, was indeed a drastic deviation from the conventional form. It can never be accepted as correct. The average jazz listener accepted it from an impressionistic point of view. That is, the assertion of it expressed to him the real termination of a jazz rendition (very notable in the player roll recordings of yesteryear) and he became accustomed to its impression as such.

Nowadays we occasionally hear unresolved chords in endings, and we have often wondered if they do not greatly disturb the sensibilities of the musical purist who chances to hear them.

In this connection we recall a story of the old master who had gone upstairs in his cottage to retire for the night. As he was about to get into bed, someone struck an active chord on the keyboard of his clavichord downstairs, leaving the chord unresolved. The old master promptly put on a wrap, went downstairs and “resolved” that chord. Only after he had thus set his mind at ease could he retire in peace.

We do not recommend the general use of unresolved dominants or other active harmonies as endings but prefer to suggest reserving them for songs of the “blues” type.

Modern musicians have devised many interesting usages for endings, most of which are favorable even to the most discriminating musical ear. A few likeable usages are shown in Examples 2 to 6, inclusive, with pianistic application:

A band has the additional advantage of achieving variety of effect through tone color and phrasing.

Note: The hand-writen manuscript examples shown in the article above are by J. Lawrence Cook.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated November 1941, Vol. 40, No. 5, page 24, column 1.


The International Musician

PROFESSIONAL PIANO POINTERS

By J. LAWRENCE COOK

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

In the August issue we invited you to submit an original introduction based upon a chord line printed in that issue, and in September we extended you an invitation to submit an original sequence to follow our excerpt of an improvisation based upon the chord line of “I’ll Get By”. We are glad to print what we have judged to be the best examples submitted. In view of the fact that both examples are given in a single article, insufficient space will prevent the presentation of detailed analyses.

Introduction submitted by Brother Arthur Borsky of Local 77, Philadelphia, Pa.:

Sequence submitted by Brother Webbie Gillen, Secretary, Local 380, Binghampton, New York:

Our previous recommendation for seeking to achieve “characterization” and to avoid overembellishment and anti-climax in introductions still obtains. This recommendation is based not only upon our own opinion but also upon conclusions reached after careful analysis of a rather large number of recordings by outstanding popular pianists.

On the other hand we have observed that most of the better known artists are inclined to take greater liberty with endings. Quite often even when the piece itself has been executed in strict rhythm, we have found the ending played in an elaborate rubato style.

The following interesting ending was noted in a recording in the key of G by a well known artist.

It is played “rubato” and the following features may be noted:

At (1) he strikes a Major 7th against the Tonic root.

At (2) he places a Diminished upon a Dominant root, then takes a “vivace” passage (with both hands) of 22 notes against the two succeeding beats.

At (3) he changes to 6/8 time and achieve an “impressionistic” effect through the use of a series of Major triads, each of which is noted to be in the position of the 6 (2nd inversion).

The name and number of the recording on which this ending was heard will be forwarded to anyone who requests it and sends a self-addressed, stamped envelope.

Note: The hand-writen manuscript examples shown in the article above are by J. Lawrence Cook.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated December 1941, Vol. 40, No. 6, page 25, column 2 and page 26, column 1.


The International Musician

PROFESSIONAL PIANO POINTERS

By J. LAWRENCE COOK

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

We have decided, in this issue, to deal with generalities, beginning with a word or two about how we came to assume interest in offering these articles.

We began our musical career about 20 years ago as an arranger and recording pianist for Q.R.S. player rolls. During the past ten years or more our time has been divided between arranging music for player rolls and teaching piano and harmony. As stated in a previous article the player roll work necessitates endless research and analysis of all types and styles of popular piano playing. Much of the analytical study is based upon a thorough study of material actually copied, note for note, from phonograph records. During the past several months there has been such a sharp increase in the demand for player rolls that we have had to abandon all teaching activities. Hence the writing of this series of articles serves as a welcome opportunity for us to impart some of our findings to and share some of our ideas with those to whom we feel the efforts will be of the most value.

Several weeks before a very popular movie was released, the company producing it wrote in to enquire if they might obtain a special player roll recording done in the style of 1917. It was to be used on a player piano in a barroom scene or something of the sort in the picture. Two of the numbers were “Oh, You Beautiful Doll” and, I believe, “Tony Boy”. Now we were not engaged in player roll work in 1917, but we had had a keen interest in jazz piano playing since as early as 1914. Thus it was not too difficult to recall the predominant style of 1917. The name of the picture in question is “Sergeant York”.

We stated the foregoing not merely to record the incident. The fact is that, though the style is that which was in vogue around 1917, there are still many who respond to it much more readily than to any of the styles of later dates or those of the present day. If this were not true, we would not have so many avid followers of the styles of such exponents as “Jelly Roll” Morton, Meade “Lux” Lewis and others.

We must not assume for one moment that the winners of popularity contests or those conceded by fellow musicians to represent the best in predominant styles are the only ones who play music which is acceptable and well liked.

Once an individual from a certain section of the country asked me point blank, “Who is the best popular piano player of today?” We could not point to any single one and say, “He is the one,” but had to name four, stating reasons for so doing. Much to our amazement our questioner could not agree that any of these four was exceptional, and he made his contradiction with such conviction that it appeared useless to offer any kind of argument in support of our claim.

Anyway, the above question did support out long standing belief that in many cases the acceptance of a style is often determined by standards other than those set by our modern exponents of the art of popular piano playing or of their regular adherents. You will find whole sections of the country where there are such contrasts in colloquialism and inflection of speech, intonation, and so forth, that those from one section often find it difficult to understand and amusing to hear those from another. It should not be surprising, then, that there are marked variarions in styles of popular piano playing.

“Swinging” the Classics

In regard to “Swinging the Classics”, we regret our inability to give an unqualified condonement of or objection to the practice. It certainly seems rather distasteful for a song writer to take a melody by one of the masters, put words to it, and then claim full credit for the composition except for an “admission” that is “based” upon the theme so-and-so.

Aside from this, the following points are to be noted:

1.  If a classical or semi-classical time is based upon strict rhythm (originally), there is no objection to adaptation to modern rhythmic treatment, with such melodic and harmonic alterations as would appear to enhance the adaptation.

2.  It is often necessary for popular piano teachers to resort to the use of classical or semi-classical themes as a basis upon which to build arrangements for teaching purposes. They have the privilege of “public domain” usage and thus avoid the use of unfamiliar themes as well as escape the complications likely to arise in the use of published popular tunes whose copyrights are valid.

3.  In regard to mutilating a classical tune otherwise intended to be expressive of a mood of repose or contemplation, that is a different matter. As a rule such mutilations sound distasteful to us, with a few exceptions. Specifically among these are the meritorious treatments of “Elegie and Humoreske” by Art Tatum, and the treatments of some other such numbers by Teddy Wilson in the presence of this writer. In each case these artists did not just take the tunes and begin swinging, thank goodness. They interpreted them in their own way.

4.  Some artists are adept in the art of musical caricature. When they do a good job of it and call the results by rightful name, there can hardly be any serious objection except by those who object entirely to the art of musical caricature.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated March 1942, Vol. 40, No. 9, page 21, column 2.


The International Musician

Professional Piano Pointers

By J. Lawrence Cook

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

Since harmony is the orthography, grammar and rhetoric of music, an occasional detailed discussion of its treatment is virtually indispensable in the preparation of any series of articles intended for the perusal of musicians who must almost constantly be confronted with problems of harmonization.

When we launched upon our musical career some twenty odd years ago, we had never given the formal study of harmony the slightest consideration, and no one had ever suggested the necessity of such a study. Moreover, we were constantly hackled and otherwise discouraged by colleagues when, after having become actively engaged in the profession, we did take it up. The following questions were frequently posed: “What are you doing — preparing to become a highbrow?” “What do you expect to get out of ‘legitimate’ harmony that will benefit you in this line of work?” We must admit having occasionally fallen into the doldrums of despondency over our endeavors in the study of harmony. In fact, we attempted several times to give it up, only to be lured back by the patient exhortations of our teacher.

Our particular “line” is the recording of music for player piano rolls. Of the scores of roll companies that were in operation throughout the world twenty years ago, only a single one has carried on and is still doing good business today. The present writer is the head recording artist of that company. He attributes this singling out of himself — in a sort of “survival of the fittest” role — to his thorough grounding in the principles of harmony.

No one can deny that radio, the depression and what not had a great deal to do with the virtual extinction of the player piano; but your writer has always contended and still contends that the limited qualifications of the majority of the so-called recording artists — their utter ignorance of the rudiments of harmony — had much to do with it. Their copious tremolos relentlessly plagued the ears of innocent law-abiding citizens. Their reckless voicing, their elementary and often total lack of a sense of balance irked the sensibilities of the really musical mind. Their frequent attempts to use as many of the eighty-eight notes as the pneumatic power of their player pianos would allow played havoc with the hammers and strings of pianos that could not possibly stand the strain.

How many popular musicians of today have bothered really to learn harmony? Is it not true that nine out of ten, when questioned casually about their knowledge of harmony, throw out their chests and boast: “Well, I know all of my chords”, or “I had harmony in high school”. How many of them would use the German sixth in C, resolving it into the six-four position of the Tonic and call it anything but A flat Seventh resolving to C? Teachers have even been known to tell their students: “If you have originality and can pick out chords on the piano, you can arrange. If you write down something that sounds bad, it’s wrong; but if you write something that sounds good, it’s right.”

Beginning with our next article we shall have a few points to present which we trust will be of some advantage particularly to the popular pianist who recognizes the possibility of great improvement through a better knowledge of the salient facts of known harmonic principles.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated September 1942, Vol. 41, No. 3, page 19, column 2.


The International Musician

Professional Piano Pointers

By J. LAWRENCE COOK

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

When we associate any two tones (simultaneously) on instruments, with voices, or in writing, we use the term “interval”. The true meaning of “interval” is “the distance between any two tones”. An interval is not a chord, although any interval may be regarded as a segment of some chord.

Single notes and intervals are used freely in the treble so long as they obtain ample harmonic support from the bass. Some intervals, such as thirds and sixths, are often very effective when used successively. Successive fourths and fifths, however, should usually be avoided or at least used rather sparingly. As a matter of fact, they are prohibited in the movement of voices in four-part harmony.

Intervals have two classifications and two qualities. The classifications are: general and specific. The qualities are: consonant and dissonant.

CLASSIFICATIONS: The general names of intervals are the names by which we call them just as we find them in a Major scale (within the range of an octave), using the keynote as a starting point for measurement. The specific names are those used when intervals undergo alterations which are so slight as not to warrant a complete change of names.

In the general classification there are four Major intervals and four Perfect ones. In the following illustration the Prime, Octave, Fourth and Fifth are Perfect intervals, while the others are Major.

In the specific classification the first alteration is that in which a Major is converted into a minor. Seconds, thirds, sixths and sevenths are Major intervals and are converted into minor by “dropping” the top note one-half step. Primes, fourths, fifths and octaves, being perfect intervals, cannot be converted into minor.

Augmented intervals are obtained by adding one-half step to perfect or Major intervals (by raising the upper note or lowering the lower one).

Diminished intervals are obtained by subtracting one-half step from minor intervals (by lowering the upper note or raising the lower one).

The following illustration shows all practical intervals within the range of (and including) an octave, using “C” as a root.

Qualities: A consonant interval sounds complete and restful. A dissonant interval sounds incomplete and unrestful and conveys the impression that it should be resolved into a restful one in order to render final satisfaction to the ear.

When a dissonant interval is struck on the piano, we hear a confliction of vibrations which the piano-tuner calls “beats”. Consonant intervals either do not have “beats” or do have them in such minimized form that they pass unnoticed.

Since some consonant intervals have no beats at all, while others have them in extremely modified form, it has been considered fitting to give consonant intervals two classifications: perfect and imperfect.

Perfect consonances: Perfect prime, fourth, fifth and octave. Imperfect consonances: augmented fifth, diminished fifth, augmented sixth, major seventh, minor seventh, diminished octave, diminished fourth.

The interval of the tenth, which is but an extension of the third, is the only interval beyond the compass of an octave which it is practical to strike (both notes simultaneously) on the keyboard with one hand. Intervals beyond the tenth are found in chords of the superstructure, which may be discussed in a later article.

Note: The hand-writen manuscript examples shown in the article above are by J. Lawrence Cook.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated November 1942, Vol. 41, No. 5, page 25, column 1.


The International Musician

Professional Piano Pointers

J. Lawrence Cook

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

Although this department will continue to be what its title implies, there must be some future arrangers who have taken an interest in it because of the current series on harmony. In deference to this belief, we feel the necessity of taking time out from the series to comment upon matters pertaining to arranging that do not deal too specifically with principles of theory.

It has come to our attention that while some aspiring arrangers are told that a thorough grounding in the study of harmony and composition is unnecessary, others are advised that such a grounding is an absolute prerequisite. We prefer to suggest a sort of middle road. For example, there is the uninitiated student who has a natural inclination to arrange and possesses good talent. We may find him able to conceive whole scores in his mind. His sense of discrimination enables him to make a good appraisal of what he conceives as well as what he hears. Such a one might well resort to a means of putting down what he thinks with little or no academic requirement except the rudiments of notation.

Since the piano is, in a sense, a full orchestra in itself, our untrained aspirant might well sit at the keyboard and work out anything from a simple piano score to a full orchestration, achieving a final result which has real merit.

It is common knowledge that a very great deal of the creditable arrangements (popular) we hear today have been scored by talented young arrangers who can boast of little or no training in harmony and composition. It is equally true that many thoroughly trained arrangers have experienced difficulty in making a headway in the popular field because of limited original ideas. One of these groups often borrows from the other; that is, the one with scant training and copious ideas often imitates the other’s methods of recording his thoughts, while the trained one often copies original ideas of the other.

If it is your will to try your hand at scoring for the orchestra by first working out your ideas at the piano, we suggest that you go ahead and try it. It may well be that you are gifted with sufficient talent to overcome your lack of training in harmony for the time being. Never let yourself be led to believe, though, that you can go along indefinitely without such training. It is something that you may be able to put off, but not abandon. Meanwhile, this department will be glad to lend any reasonable assistance.

In the next article we shall continue our present line of thought by discussing the all-important subject of voicing.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated January 1943, Vol. 41, No. 7, page 16, column 2.


The International Musician

Professional Piano Pointers

J. Lawrence Cook

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

VOICING — a number of terms in music, particularly popular music, have more than one meaning. For instance, you may hear one person say that he knows his harmony well, when he means that he is rather thoroughly familiar with chords as related to the harmonization of popular tunes.

A pianist or arranger with a fairly good inventive mind may say that he has discovered a “new tonality”, when he really means that he has come upon a combination of tones which produces an unusual chord impression. A tonality is a realm or domain of tones possessing a distinctive character, for instance, a scale.

A piano tuner will “voice” your piano by softening the hammer felts so as to mellow or subdue the sound impression, or he may harden the felts to make this impression more brilliant.

Some arrangers seem to have a notion that voicing, in relation to arranging, refers to the four voices used in four-part harmony: bass, tenor, alto and soprano. The voicing to be discussed briefly in this article is “the spacing and balancing of any several tones which are to be sounded simultaneously and moved conjunctively.”

One question which frequently arises in cases in which four-part harmonization is concerned is: “Which tones shall I double?” The “safest” tone to double is the root of the chord. In fact, the root may even be tripled if necessary. The fifth may be doubled when the proper movement of parts is otherwise impossible; but the third should be doubled rarely if ever.

The most perfect example we can think of in the voicing of a concord would be the arrangement of the “C” chord in Example 1.

Notice that G, the fifth, lies in a position that is not particularly indicative of importance. As a matter of fact, when desirable or expedient the fifth may even be omitted with little alteration in the general impression of the chord.

Now observe in the illustration that the root and third, both strong intervals, lie in strategic positions, one at the top and the other at the bottom of the chord, representing a perfect “chord-frame”. The root, as you see, is doubled.

A good illustration of the voicing and resolution of the Dominant Seventh chord is found in Example 2.

Note that in the C Seventh chord the root is at the bottom and the Seventh on top, also that the fifth has been omitted. Note, however, that when this chord is resolved into “F”, its root becomes the fifth of the F chord and is included in the voicing of the latter. The pleasant effect of this resolution indicates, among other things, that it is desirable to include the fifth in a concord that follows a dominant seventh whose fifth is omitted.

In order not to close the article without giving an example of at least one chord that does not fall into common classification, we offer Example 3 as an instance of voicing the “Tonic with added sixth and ninth” — a five-tone chord.

A few suggestions in regard to the voicing of this type of chord are as follows:

1.   Always try to include all the basic intervals (root, third and fifth), preferably in open-harmony spacing; but if an interval is to be omitted for any reason whatsoever, let it be the fifth.

2.   Place the basic intervals below the subordinate ones.

3.   Place the subordinate intervals so that, if their resolution is desired, they will move (by half steps) in the direction of their natural tendency.

Note: The hand-writen manuscript examples shown in the article above are by J. Lawrence Cook.

Prof. Brian Dolan and Prof. Alan Wallace send the following article from the Pedagogics section of The International Musician, dated April 1943, Vol. 41, No. 10, page 16, columns 1—2.


The International Musician

Professional Piano Pointers

J. Lawrence Cook

Criticisms and suggestions are welcome, and all communications addressed to the
writer in care of the
INTERNATIONAL MUSICIAN will receive his personal attention

The question of key is something with which every pianist has to deal. To some it is largely a matter of mechanics, but to others it goes far beyond that.

The choice of key is of far-reaching importance to the composer of classical and semi-classical music. For example, the minor is universally accepted as the mode through which sadness is to be musically expressed.  Flat keys are known to be desirable for depth and seriousness, and for a sort of resonant quality not found in other keys. Sharp keys represent the most satisfactory medium through which brightness and gaiety may be expressed.  Since all keys, excluding C, contain one or more sharps or flats, what then is generally meant when we refer to keys as being sharp or flat? In speaking of flat keys we usually mean A-flat, D-flat, or G-flat and D, A, E and B for the sharps.

For the minor we might say E-flat minor and B-flat minor for the flats, and F-sharp and C-sharp minor for the sharps.

The intervening keys are the ones that are subjected to the most constant use largely because of their comparative simplicity.

Popular music is usually written in one of the simpler keys. The popular composer’s aim is not to express anything with depth and seriousness. If he is not writing about love, he is seeking to put over some original idea of melody and rhythm based on some simple theme. Two outstanding exceptions to the popular composer’s choosing, other than simpler keys, are the familiar tunes, “Body and Soul” and “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes”. The change of key occurring in each of these brings about a striking change of mood, and in each instance there is an eloquent reversion to the original key for the close.

The writer of symphonic scores has perhaps the most exacting experience with keys, for besides the importance of choosing the keys which are most desirable for varying shades of musical expression, he must also take into account the mechanical peculiarities of the instruments.

A summary of the popular pianist’s experience with keys is about as follows. First of all we have the black key specialist. He is usually one whose desire to play has far exceeded his ability to make the proper technical preparations. He cannot read music and he is virtually lost in any key except D-flat and G-flat. He knows nothing of theoretical harmony and technic, yet he has an amazing sense of chord relationship and has mastered certain runs to such an extent that he executes them instantly and almost flawlessly. Next we have the white key player. He is limited largely to C, F and G, but can usually execute creditably in E-flat and D-flat and sometimes A-flat. He naturally takes advantage of the inter-relationship of C, F, and G, and you will find him in some pretty high places, depending on how much he is capable of expressing his keys. He has a very decided advantage over the black key specialist, for some pieces simply do not “lay” well when restricted to the black keys.

The most desirably equipped popular pianists are those who have first acquired a thorough background through formal study, and have adapted their qualifications to popular playing.

Much depends upon how wisely this formal background has been adapted and upon the inventive ability of the individual.

KUDOS


Prof. Brian Dolan (USA)
Millie Gaddini (USA)
Mike Meddings (UK)


Dr. Robert Pinsker (USA)
Adam Ramet (UK)
Prof. Alan Wallace (USA)

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